Foto: Lexamer – Freepik.com
Forms of marketing
All the variations and examples of marketing activities listed below are the results of a selection process that was based on subjective judgment (ie, one resultant: universality, popularity, effectiveness). More specifically, I have overlooked all the marketing concepts that do not play a major role now, ie their time has not yet come, or perhaps by definition does not seem to be worth the note.
It is difficult to assign a particular form of marketing to the category. On many occasions a given date could be assigned to two or more groups, and the category itself could be a subcategory of another, etc. Therefore, the main breakdown criterion in the following table has become transparency and structurality.
INTERNET MARKETING (also: digital marketing, online marketing) – covers all marketing activities using the internet.
– Display advertising such as banners, skyscrapers, pop-ups, etc., in static, animated or video format;
– Serach engine optimization (SEO) – actions aimed at raising a site’s position in search results (so called site positioning);
– Serach engine marketing (SEM) – search engine advertising (e.g., through sponsored links or SEO);
– Managing the company’s website;
– Email marketing – sending electronic messages, including, newsletters, promotional or informational emails;
– Social media marketing – using social networks to communicate with customers;
– Viral marketing / buzz marketing – content creation that aims to rapidly spread between users while increasing awareness of the brand being promoted;
– Crowdsourcing marketing – using the community to create ideas for new marketing solutions;
– Advertising on portals offering group shopping;
– Referral marketing – provoking customers to recommend another company;
– Affiliate marketing – One of the types of promotion with a cost per action settlement where publishers (web site owners) offer advertising space, in return for consideration from each event (e.g.: properly completed form, signed contract with the customer by the partner).
MOBILE MARKETING – mobile devices (cells, tablets, laptops) on the marketing service
– Communication via SMS / MMS;
– Use of mobile applications for promotion;
– In-game marketing – use of games as a carrier of product and company information;
– QR codes – pictures placed on packages or billboards that redirect to a web site after scanning;
– Voice mailing – automatic voice messages sent to mobile phone holders;
– Location based marketing – use of localization tools in marketing;
– Dedicated display ads under mobile devices;
– Communication via bluetooth.
OUTBOUND MARKETING (push marketing) – Outbound (initiated by the company), targeted to people who do not necessarily expect to contact us.
– Direct marketing – a form of marketing in which the message is addressed to specific people, e.g.:
– Telemarketing (cold calling, telephone surveys, information campaigns, teleshopping);
– Email marketing campaigns – mass emailing, often using personalized marketing tools;
– Mailing campaigns by mail (address and non-address);
– Door-to-door marketing (marketing) – marketing homemade.
INBOUND MARKETING (or pull marketing) – actions aimed at increasing the chance of finding our customer’s offer and then encouraging him to contact us. They use SEO tools, social media, and also:
– Content marketing – creating valuable content and using them as a lure on potential customers. Such articles are industry articles (published on corporate blogs), reports, market research, case studies, success stories, etc .;
– Infolin / telecenter – communicate phone number and encourage contact by phone.
EVENT MARKETING – promotion of a company or product through organization or participation in various types of events, eg:
– Presence with a lecture at a conference or industry seminar;
– Presentation at trade show stand;
– Organization of festivals, concerts, picnics;
– “Loyalty” trips for key clients;
– Sponsorship of events organized by other entities.
ATL (above the line) – advertising using the mass media:
– TV advertisement;
– Radio advertising;
– Press advertising (including industry directories, own publishing houses);
– Out of home marketing (OOH) / outdoor marketing – outdoor advertising, street advertising, using such media as: advertising boards, billboards, citylights, advertising posts, shelters, kiosks, electronic boards, telephones;
– Product placement – “pseudoreklama”, locating product information on radio or TV shows, series, TV films, so that it does not have the impression of direct advertising, impact on the subconscious.
BTL (below the line) – targeted advertising for a specific client. Most often associated with: leaflets, catalogs, brochures (so-called POS), as well as various gadgets and gifts (see list of business gift ideas). But BTL is also:
– Ambush marketing – use large media events to promote products, but do not pay any royalty fees, etc.;
– Eco marketing – enhancing the environmental benefits of the products offered;
– Guerilla marketing – guerilla marketing, the promotion of goods and services through unconventional techniques, usually a small budget, but a big resonance;
– Augmented reality marketing – promotion using augmented reality solutions;
– Point of sale marketing (indoor marketing / in-store marketing) – promotion at retail outlets, e.g.: stands, hostesses, samples, etc .;
– Merchandising – influencing the behavior of customers (and exactly the level of sales) through the decor of the room and the way the goods are presented;
PRODUCT MARKETING / BRAND MARKETING – A group of activities that aim to develop a product (or brand), including: sales growth and recognition.
– New product development (NPD) – the process of implementing new products on the market;
– Test-driven marketing – systematic testing the effectiveness of new marketing forms;
– Rebranding – logo change, product visualization, positioning on the market;
– Promotion marketing – organizing promotions: price, package, quantity, coupon, etc .;
– Sampling – providing samples, testers, demo versions to customers;
– Competitions, quizzes – fun as a way to increase interactivity;
– Loyalty marketing – creating your own or joining existing ones (such as Payback) on maintenance and developing relationships with existing customers;
– Cross- and up-selling – marketing and sales actions aimed at selling other products from the offer to current customers or selling more expensive products (or optional items);
– Certification – participation of the product in independent competitions, rankings, etc .;
– Customer experience management (CEM) – customer experience management;
– Vertical marketing – matching the same products across different industries.
ANALYTICAL MARKETING – Using customer information to increase product sales
– Database marketing – analysis and data management to better address the offer, CRM;
– Closed loop marketing – measuring the results of marketing (ROI) and communication activities, tracking the response of target groups;
– Behavioral marketing – targeting advertising / offering in terms of customer behavior;
– Geomarketing – matching marketing mix to customer geographic location;
– Neuromarketing – the use of psychophysiological research for marketing purposes;
– Marketing research – marketing research (CATI, CAWI, focus groups, etc.)
– Benchmarking – benchmarking: customer segments, competition products, etc .;
– Remarketing – targeting of the ad based on the logged behavior of the user on the network;
– Real-time marketing – used most often in ecommerce, tailoring marketing messages to individual customers, at a given time and place.
B2B MARKETING – marketing activities specific to companies offering their products to other businesses (and not individual customers).
– Relationship marketing (account-based marketing, one-to-one marketing) – marketing activities aimed at developing and sustaining long-term business relationships with customers;
– Channel marketing – marketing through distribution channels;
– Cooperative marketing – the cooperation of two companies to develop a common offer;
– Niche marketing – directing marketing activities to small or underserved market segments;
– Yellow-pages / industry directories – placing contact information in business listings and lists.
PUBLIC RELATIONS (PR) – Planned communication both inside and outside the company.
– Media relations – management of presentation and presence in the media;
– Article marketing – writing press releases, interviews, press statements;
– Lobbying (influence marketing) – actions to win the favor of public affairs, the media or other key people from the company’s point of view;
– Celebrity marketing – use celebrities as brand image carriers;
– Black PR – publicizing information leading to discrediting competition;
– Word-of-mouth marketing (evangelism marketing) – making the “good news” spread from customer to customer;
– Internal communication (internal PR) – all kinds of activities, which are the employees of the enterprise. The aim here is to increase morale, improve employee identity with corporate identity, motivate for better work, build the right attitude resulting from company vision and mission.